How to Cite

Components of a Standard Reference
In order for your readers to be able to find the sources you used, you need to supply reference information.
The basic components of a reference are Author, Title, and Publication Information. Depending on the source, these elements may be somewhat different.
Books: Author (or Editor), Title, Publisher, Place of publication, Year of publication
Mirzayan, R. (Ed.). (2006). Cartilage injury in the athlete. New York: Thieme.
Articles: Author, Article Title, Journal Title, Volume #, Issue #, Date, Pages
Kon, E., Delcogliano, M., Filardo, G., Montaperto, C., & Marcacci, M. (2008). Second Generation Issues in Cartilage Repair. Sports Medicine & Arthroscopy Review, 16(4), 221-229.
Web Site: Author (or Company or Organization), Web Page Title, URL, Date (posted or revised), Date retrieved
Clinic, S. I. (2010). Medial Cartilage Meniscus Injury. Retrieved January 30, 2010, from
Image: Artist name, Title of the work, Date is was created, Repository (or, museum or owner), City or Country of origin, Dimensions of the work, Material or medium (such as oil on canvas, marble, found objects)
  • If the image is in a book you will need the full book reference with the page for the image.
  • If it's online, you need the Web reference in addition to the image number or other identifier.
Kienzle, T. K. (Photographer). (2004). Greece Olympics Run [Photograph], Retrieved January 30, 2010, from:
Having complete reference information for each source used -- and presented in an organized and consistent way -- makes it easier for both you and your readers. Citation styles provide the framework for presenting your reference information clearly and consistently.

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