ODU LIBRARIES: Information Literacy and Research

Information Literacy Standards of the ACRL
(Associaton for College and Research Libraries)

Standard 1
Standard 2
Standard 3
Standard 4
Standard 5

Standard 3:
The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system.

Performance Indicators:

  1. The information literate student summarizes the main ideas to be extracted from the information gathered.
  2. The information literate student articulates and applies initial criteria for evaluating both the information and its sources.
  3. The information literate student synthesizes main ideas to construct new concepts.
  4. The information literate student compares new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine the value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the information.
  5. The information literate student determines whether the new knowledge has an impact on the individual’s value system and takes steps to reconcile differences.
  6. The information literate student validates understanding and interpretation of the information through discourse with other individuals, subject-area experts, and/or practitioners.
  7. The information literate student determines whether the initial query should be revised.

1. The information literate student summarizes the main ideas to be extracted from the information gathered.

Outcomes Include:

    A. Reads the text and selects main ideas.

    Practice:

    1. After reading several texts, students are asked to list common themes and to write possible thesis statement.

    B. Restates textual concepts in his/her own words and selects data accurately.  

    Practice:

    1. Writes brief summaries of sources representing opposing views.

C. Identifies verbatim material that can be then appropriately quoted.

Practice:

    1. Student highlights key statements in an article. 
2. The information literate student articulates and applies initial criteria for evaluating both the information and its sources.

Outcomes Include:

A. Examines and compares information from various sources in order to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and point of view or bias.

      Objective:

      1. Locates and examines critical reviews of information sources using available resources and technologies.
      2. Investigates an author's qualifications and reputation through reviews or biographical sources.
      3. Investigates validity and accuracy by consulting sources identified through bibliographic references.
      4. Investigates qualifications and reputation of the publisher or issuing agency by consulting other information resources. (See also 3.4.e.)
      5. Determines when the information was published (or knows where to look for a source's publication date).
      6. Recognizes the importance of timeliness or date of publication to the value of the source.
      7. Determines if the information retrieved is sufficiently current for the information need.
      8. Demonstrates an understanding that other sources may provide additional information to either confirm or question point of view or bias. 

      Practice:

      1. Student writes a paragraph commenting on why the sources were appropriate to the argument presented. Students’ specifically address these criteria and relevancy to main points and sub points in their arguments.

    B. Analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments or methods.

      Practice:

      1. Talk show hosts - students will choose one program and identify main issue being discussed, list the supporting arguments given by the talk show host and analyze them.

    C. Recognizes prejudice, deception, or manipulation.

      Objective:

      1. Demonstrates an understanding that information in any format reflects an author's, sponsor's, and/or publisher's point of view.
      2. Demonstrates an understanding that some information and information sources may present a one-sided view and may express opinions rather than facts.
      3. Demonstrates an understanding that some information and sources may be designed to trigger emotions, conjure stereotypes, or promote support for a particular viewpoint or group.
      4. Applies evaluative criteria to information and its source (e.g., author's expertise, currency, accuracy, point of view, type of publication or information, sponsorship).
      5. Searches for independent verification or corroboration of the accuracy and completeness of the data or representation of facts presented in an information source.

      Practice:

      1. Controversial topics are best - look at different sides of issue.
      2. Multicultural perspectives.
      3. Book reviews of a titles from different cultural perspectives and students finds different reviews.
      4. Use books with suspect authority and students must ferret out the frauds and identify biases.

    D. Recognizes the cultural, physical, or other context within which the information was created and understands the impact of context on interpreting the information.

      Practice:

      1. Compare web sites to ads.Compare online shopping to real shopping.

3. The information literate student synthesizes main ideas to construct new concepts.

Outcomes Include:

    A. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts and combines them into potentially useful primary statements with supporting evidence.

      Practice:

      1. Articulates summary of findings after review of literature

    B. Extends initial synthesis, when possible, at a higher level of abstraction to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information.

      Practice:

      1. Revises thesis statement after new material is found.

C. Utilizes computer and other technologies (e.g. spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, and audio or visual equipment) for studying the interaction of ideas and other phenomena.

      Practice:

        1. Creates spreadsheet to analyze survey findings.

4. The information literate student compares new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine the value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the information.

Outcomes Include:

A. Determines whether information satisfies the research or other information need.

Practice:

  1. During online search student marks pertinent items in results list.

B. Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether the information contradicts or verifies information used from other sources.

Practice:

  1. After selecting certain sources student reflects on and communicates specific criteria used in the selection process.

C. Draws conclusions based upon information gathered.

Practice:

  1. Articulates summary statement of literature reviewed.

D. Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques (e.g., simulators, experiments).

Practice:

  1. Creates experiment to test hypothesis that was developed via literature review.

E. Determines probable accuracy by questioning the source of the data, the limitations of the information gathering tools or strategies, and the reasonableness of the conclusions.

Objective:

  1. Describes how the reputation of the publisher affects the quality of the information source. (See also 3.2.a.).
  2. Determines when a single search strategy may not fit a topic precisely enough to retrieve sufficient relevant information.
  3. Determines when some topics may be too recent to be covered by some standard tools (e.g., a periodicals index) and when information on the topic retrieved by less authoritative tools (e.g., a Web search engine) may not be reliable.
  4. Compares new information with own knowledge and other sources considered authoritative to determine if conclusions are reasonable.

Practice:

  1. Evaluate web sites with the 5 basic criteria.

F. Integrates new information with previous information or knowledge.

G. Selects information that provides evidence for the topic.

Objective:

  1. Describes why not all information sources are appropriate for all purposes (e.g., ERIC is not appropriate for all topics, such as business topics; the Web may not be appropriate for a local history topic).
  2. Distinguishes among various information sources in terms of established evaluation criteria (e.g., content, authority, currency).
  3. Applies established evaluation criteria to decide which information sources are most appropriate.

Practice:

  1. Selects records from a search that contain supporting information.

5. The information literate student determines whether the new knowledge has an impact on the individual’s value system and takes steps to reconcile differences.

Outcomes Include:

A. Investigates differing viewpoints encountered in the literature.

Practice:

  1. Write a persuasive paper on a topic including rebuttals to opposing viewpoint and present to class.

B. Determines whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints encountered.

Practice:

  1. Assesses accuracy of data collection technique in journal article.

6. The information literate student validates understanding and interpretation of the information through discourse with other individuals, subject-area experts, and/or practitioners.

Outcomes Include:

A. Participates in classroom and other discussions.

Practice:

  1. Student is an active and prepared participant in class discussions.

B. Participates in class-sponsored electronic communication forums designed to encourage discourse on the topic (e.g., email, bulletin boards, chat rooms).

Practice:

  1. Student is an active and prepared participant in class electronic discussions.

C. Seeks expert opinion through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., interviews, email, listservs).

Practice:

  1. Contacts professor and/or librarian for assistance in person or online.

7. The information literate student determines whether the initial query should be revised.

Outcomes Include:

A. Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if additional information is needed.

Practice:

  1. Is able to judge when enough information has been gathered to meet the needs for a specific assignment.

B. Reviews search strategy and incorporates additional concepts as necessary.

Objective:

  1. Demonstrates how searches may be limited or expanded by modifying search terminology or logic.

 Practice:

  1. Given a very large search results students can list terms and concepts to limit and focus the results.

C. Reviews information retrieval sources used and expands to include others as needed.

Objective:

  1. Examines footnotes and bibliographies from retrieved items to locate additional sources.
  2. Follows, retrieves and evaluates relevant online links to additional sources.
  3. Incorporates new knowledge as elements of revised search strategy to gather additional information.

Practice:

  1. Conducts search using alternative terminology and can expand or limit search based on results retrieved.