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Patricia W. & J. Douglas Perry Library
Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0256
telephone (757) 683-4483
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THE PAPERS OF A.E.S. STEPHENS

BIOGRAPHY

Allie Edward Stakes Stephens was born November 4, 1900, in Wicomico Church, Virginia, the fourth son of J.W.G. Stephens and Allie Tyson Beane Stephens. Although Stephens became a successful lawyer and a prominent politician, he did not come from a family background in either the law or politics. J.W.G. Stephens had been a cowboy in the Dakotas before he returned to Virginia to open a general merchandise store. Lacking a formal education himself, the elder Stephens made sacrifices to secure a good education for his children, telling them, "Without an education, all the money in the world will just make fools out of you."

A.E.S. Stephens attended public schools in Northumberland County, Virginia, and graduated from Wicomico Church High School in 1918. During his high school years Stephens was so successful as a baseball pitcher that he was asked to try out with the Washington Senators. Heeding his father's advice, Stephens turned down the offer; however, he maintained a keen interest in baseball and excelled in the sport during his student years at the College of William and Mary.

Stephens entered William and Mary in the fall of 1919 and was awarded both academic and law degrees upon graduation in 1923. It was at William and Mary that Stephens received his life-long nickname, "Gi". Stephens stood 6'3" in his bare feet and his friends claimed he was "lean as a giraffe,." Giraffe was pronounced with a long "i" and from this pronunciation "Gi" was derived.

Stephens began practicing law in the Isle of Wight County, Virginia, on September 15, 1923. It was in Isle of Wight County in 1927 that Stephens experienced a violent initiation into politics. An incident occurred in which a fourteen year old white girl was allegedly brutally murdered by a black man.

At a time in Virginia history when lynchings still occurred, a mob formed and demanded the death of the defendant. The Isle of Wight Commonwealth's Attorney, however, succeeded in transporting the black man safely to Petersburg. Stephens was asked by angry Isle of Wight residents to run for Commonwealth's Attorney as an independent candidate, but Stephens made it absolutely clear that he would neither run, nor accept the office if elected. Stephens, in fact, won the election, but as he had promised he refused to accept the office despite the attempted intimidation of the Ku Klux Klan.

Stephens formally began his political career when he was elected as a Democrat to the House of Delegates in 1929. He served as a Delegate for twelve years. In 1941 Stephens was elected to the Virginia Senate where he served until 1952. After the death of Lieutenant Governor Lewis Preston Collins on September 20, 1952, Stephens announced his candidacy for the unexpired portion of Collins' term. His candidacy was successful and in November 1953, he was elected to a full four-year term. Stephens was re-elected Lieutenant Governor in 1957, and served in that capacity until his resignation after an unsuccessful candidacy for the Governorship in 1961.

While serving in the General Assembly of Virginia, Stephens was the chief patron of the legislation which created the Hampton Roads Sanitation Commission. He was interested in legislation pertaining to the seafood industry, and while in the House of Delegates, he served as a member and chairman of the Committee on Fish and Game. His most important accomplishments were in public education. Stephens was the author and patron of the bill establishing the Denny School Commission on which he also served. The recommendations of the Denny Commission were instrumental in bringing about improvements in public schools in Virginia.

Throughout his political career, Stephens remained a member of the Democratic Party and until the late 1950s he aligned himself with the powerful Byrd Organization. Stephens split with the Byrd Machine in 1959 when he withdrew his support from the Organization's policy of Massive Resistance to public school desegregation. Stephens played a critical role in the demise of Massive Resistance when he, as presiding officer of the Senate, ruled that the Senate could resolve itself into a committee of the whole to consider the alternative Perrow Plan which conceded a minimum of integration. This parliamentary tactic enabled the moderates to bypass the Byrd Organization-dominated Education Committee and secured passage of the Perrow proposals. By the time Stephens indicated his desire to run in the 1961 Democratic primary for Governor of Virginia, he was clearly recognized as independent of the Byrd Organization. Throughout his primary campaign Stephens asked for the votes of the true Virginia Democrats, not those whom he accused of using the Democratic label to get elected, and then following Republican lines on the issues. Attorney General Albertis S. Harrison who had the Byrd Organization's support, defeated Stephens in the July primary by a vote of 199,519 to 152,639, and Stephens resigned his position as Lieutenant Governor in late 1961. Stephens did not run for State office again, but remained an influence in Virginia politics until his death.

Stephens' private life was filled with important and varied positions and accomplishments. He married Anna Spratley Delk in 1928, and had three children, including the first girl in the Stephens family in four generations. Stephens was a founder and, at his death, President and a member of the Board of the Directors of Historic St. Luke's Restoration. He was a member of the Smithfield Ruritan Club, Virginia Bar Association and an honorary member of the Smithfield Rotary Club, which he twice served as president. He was Town Attorney for the Town of Smithfield for many years until his retirement on December 3, 1971. Stephens served as a member of the Board of Visitors of Old Dominion University from 1968 to 1972. He died, after a short illness, at Riverside Hospital, Newport News, Virginia on June 9, 1973.

SCOPE AND CONTENTS

The A.E.S Stephens papers date from 1949 to 1961 and are divided into eight basic series: Correspondence; Photographs; Biographical Data; Newspaper Clippings; Campaign Records; Speeches; Statements; and Reference Material.  The papers principally relate to his unsuccessful campaign for Governor of Virginia from December 1960, until his loss to Albertis Harrison in the Democratic Party primary in July 1961. The papers dealing with the campaign period reflect Stephens' stand on various campaign issues, and the frustrations of his attempt to win the Democratic nomination against the opposition of the Byrd organization. The majority of the papers prior to the 1960-1961 primary race focus on the issue of Massive Resistance to racial integration in Virginia schools, and date back to the early 1950s. The collection contains neither Stephens' private papers, nor the records of his service in the Virginia General Assembly, or as Lieutenant Governor.

PROVENANCE

Gift of Mrs. Anna Delk Stephens and Mr. Rodham T. Delk May 20, 1977

ACCESS

Open to researchers without restrictions. Questions on literary property rights should be directed to the Special Collections Librarian

SIZE

6 Hollinger Document Cases

COLLECTION NUMBER

MG - 19

CONTAINER LISTING

Box 1 Series I: CORRESPONDENCE (February 1949-December 1960)

Folder 1 February, 1949
Folder 2 October, 1950
Folder 3 January, 1951
Folder 4 1952
Folder 5 1954
Folder 6 January-April, 1955
Folder 7 May-December, 1955
Folder 8 1956
Folder 9 1957
Folder 10 1959
Folder 11 January, 1960
Folder 12 March, 1960
Folder 13 September, 1960
Folder 14 November 1-15, 1960
Folder 15 November 16-21, 1960
Folder 16 November 22-30, 1960
Folder 17 December 1-7, 1960
Folder 18 December 8-15, 1960
Folder 19 December 16-22, 1960
Folder 20 December 23-31, 1960

Box 2 Series I: CORRESPONDENCE (January, 1960-April, 1961)

Folder 1 January 1-15, 1961
Folder 2 January 16-21, 1961
Folder 3 January 22-31, 1961
Folder 4 February 1-12, 1961
Folder 5 February 13-28, 1961
Folder 6 March 1-15, 1961
Folder 7 March 16-20, 1961
Folder 8 March 21-25, 1961
Folder 9 March 26-31, 1961
Folder 10 April 1-7, 1961
Folder 11 April 8-15, 1961
Folder 12 April 16-23, 1961
Folder 13 April 24-30, 1961

Box 3 Series I: CORRESPONDENCE (May 1961-Undated)

Folder 1 May 1-7, 1961
Folder 2 May 8-15, 1961
Folder 3 May 16-23, 1961
Folder 4 May 24-31, 1961
Folder 5 June 1-7, 1961
Folder 6 June 8-15, 1961
Folder 7 June 16-30, 1961
Folder 8 July 1-11, 1961
Folder 9 July 12, 1961
Folder 10 July 13-15, 1961
Folder 11 July 17, 1961
Folder 12 July 18-23, 1961
Folder 13 July 24-31, 1961
Folder 14 August, 1961
Folder 15 September-December, 1961
Folder 16 Undated

Box 4 Series II-VI

Series II: PHOTOGRAPHS

Folder 1 Photographs-Undated

Series III: BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

Folder 2 Biographical Data

Series IV: NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS

Folder 3 Newspaper Clippings, 1954-1959
Folder 4 Newspaper Clippings, 1959-1961

Series V: CAMPAIGN RECORDS

Folder 5 Campaign Records, 1960-61

Series VI: SPEECHES, 1952-1961

Folder 6 1952
Folder 7 1953
Folder 8 1954
Folder 9 1955
Folder 10 1956
Folder 11 1957
Folder 12 1958
Folder 13 1959
Folder 14 1960, January-June
Folder 15 July-December, 1960
Folder 16 January, 1961
Folder 17 April, 1961
Folder 18 May 1-25, 1961
Folder 19 May 26-31, 1961

Box 5 Series VI: SPEECHES

Folder 1 June 1-10, 1961
Folder 2 June 11-20, 1961
Folder 3 June 21-25, 1961
Folder 4 June 26-30, 1961
Folder 5 July 1961
Folder 6 Undated
Folder 7 Undated
Folder 8 Undated
Folder9 Undated
Folder 10 Undated
Folder 11 Speech Outlines, 1954-1961

Box 6 Series VII-VIII: STATEMENTS-REFERENCE MATERIAL

Series VII: STATEMENTS

Folder 1 Proposed Platform - April 5, 1961
Folder 2 Statements, March - June, 1961
Folder 3 July, 1961 and Undated

Series VIII: REFERENCE MATERIAL 1949-1961

Folder 4 1949-1953
Folder 5 January-July, 1954
Folder 6 August-December, 1954
Folder 7 1955-1959
Folder 8 1960
Folder 9 January-March, 1961
Folder 10 April, 1961
Folder 11 May-July, 1961
Folder 12 Undated
Folder 13 Undated

Revised: 10/6/08