LESSON IDEA:
Viewing Guide for Eight Selected Members of the Norfolk 17

--SOL Connection

--Historical Background

--Lesson

--Handout

TITLE:          Viewing Guide for Eight Selected Members of the Norfolk 17

TOPIC:           Integration, Norfolk 17, and Massive Resistance

OBJECTIVES:

  • Compare the stories of eight members of the Norfolk 17.
  • View and interpret photographs.
  • Read material about the eight members and draw conclusions.
  • Describe thoughts and questions about the eight selected members of the Norfolk 17.
  • Explain how schooling differs today compared to schooling in 1959.
  • Draw conclusions about personal values and traits of the eight selected members of the Norfolk 17.

SOL CONNECTION:

Elementary School Curriculum Frameworks Across Grade Levels

1.10

Good citizens show a variety of positive traits.

1.12

Communities in Virginia include people with different ethnic origins, customs, and traditions.

2.12

The United States is a land of people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions

VS9b

Massive Resistance Movement was designed to avoid desegregation in Virginia.

Middle School Curriculum - United States History: 1877 to the Present

USII.1a 

Analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents.

USII.1b

Make connections between past and present.

USII.7d

Demonstrate knowledge of African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities and Civil Rights legislation

USII.8a

Examine the Civil Rights Movement.

High School Curriculum

VUS.1a

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art to increase understanding of events and life in the United States.

VUS.1c 

Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation.

VUS.14a

Identify the importance of Brown v. Board of Education decision (Supreme Court, Virginia case, Massive Resistance).

GOVT.1a

Analyze primary and secondary sources.

GOVT.8.d

Examine the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments.


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

In the United States, desegregation of public schools occurred after the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.  Many southern states resisted desegregation.  In Virginia, the Massive Resistance Movement arose in response to desegregation legislation.  The photograph of the Norfolk 17 depicts the African American students who attended Norfolk’s public schools in February 1959.  Prior to allowing the 17 students access to public schools, Norfolk closed its schools in the Fall of 1958 and did not reopen until February 1959.  This activity is designed to allow students an opportunity to explore the lives of eight members of the Norfolk 17.   Prior to this activity, students should have gathered background information about the Norfolk 17 and desegregation.

STEPS:

  1. Introduce students to the Civil Rights Movement and efforts to integrate public schools in Norfolk, Virginia.
  2. Access http://www.lib.odu.edu/specialcollections/schooldesegregation/ and explore the brief overview.
  3. Click on the picture of the Norfolk 17 and read about their journey.
  4. Click on individuals to demonstrate how to view details for each person.
  5. Explore personal stories.
  6. Write questions that arise as you look explore the eight selected stories.

WEBSITE RESOURCES


LESSON PLAN IDEAS

Focus Activity – 10 minutes:

Project the picture of the Norfolk 17.  Click on one individual, Olivia Driver (top row, left of the column).  Ask students to focus on her photographs from 1959 and today.  Distribute the Entrance Ticket for this activity.  Provide a review of desegregation in Norfolk.

 

WHOLE CLASS DISCUSSION AND QUESTIONING – 10 minutes

            Ask students to volunteer to share their entrance ticket answers for the 1959 picture.
            Record answers for all to see.  Prompt students with questions:

  • What can you determine from Olivia’s body language?
  • What did Olivia’s facial expressions tell you?
  • What did you think as you viewed this photograph?
  • Does anything in the photograph provide clues about desegregation?
  • What assumptions did you make?

GROUP WORK – 20 minutes
            Arrange students in groups of four, five, or six.  Instruct students to work as a group to
            discuss the current picture of Olivia and the written material.  On the back of the Entrance
            Ticket, group members should record their responses to the following questions (you may
            wish to print the questions on the back of the Entrance Ticket).  Each group will present
            to the class.

  1. What do you notice about Olivia’s current picture?
  2. Can you see the young Olivia in the current picture?
  3. What circumstances did Olivia experience as she attended school?
  4. Did your initial impression of the early picture of Olivia match the written description?  Explain.
  5. Based on the pictures and written information, what conclusions can you come to about Olivia’s beliefs?
  6. What are the personal reactions of your group members to Olivia’s story?

INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS – 30 minutes
            Distribute the viewing guide for the eight selected members of the Norfolk 17.  Review
            the directions on the viewing guide.  Students will access the electronic material via the
            Internet.  As students view individual pictures and stories, they will record information on
            the viewing guide.  After students gather details for the eight members, they will engage
            in whole class discussion and questioning.

CLOSURE – 10 minutes
            First, ask students to share their findings from today’s activities.
            Next, ask students to think about how they would have tolerated the events of 1959.
            Then ask students to write a brief summary about the experiences of the eight selected
            members of the Norfolk 17.


VIEWING GUIDE FOR SELECTED MEMBERS OF THE NORFOLK 17

Who are they?  What did they experience?  Where are they today?

DIRECTIONS

  • First, access http://www.lib.odu.edu/specialcollections/schooldesegregation/.
  • Next, click on the picture of the Norfolk 17 in the bottom left.
  • To view a picture of the person, click on the name, look at a picture, and read about his or her experiences.
  • Write your notes, reactions, and questions on this page.
  • Prepare to share your findings.

 

Andrew Heidelberg

 

 

 

LaVera Forbes

Louis Cousins

 

 

 

Johnnie Rouse

Freddy Gonsouland

 

 

 

Patricia Turner

Delores Johnson (Brown)

 

 

 

Geraldine Talley

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