LESSON IDEA:
Viewing Guide for Photograph of the Norfolk 17

--SOL Connection

--Historical Background

--Lesson

--Handout

--Exit Ticket

TITLE:          VIEWING GUIDE FOR PHOTOGRAPH OF THE NORFOLK 17

TOPIC:           Integration, Norfolk 17, and Massive Resistance

OBJECTIVES:

  • View a picture of the Norfolk 17.
  • Describe and interpret the picture of the Norfolk 17.
  • Describe thoughts and questions about the picture of the Norfolk 17 and integration.

SOL CONNECTION:

Elementary School Curriculum Frameworks Across Grade Levels

1.10

Good citizens show a variety of positive traits.

1.12

Communities in Virginia include people with different ethnic origins, customs, and traditions.

2.12

The United States is a land of people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions

VS9b

Massive Resistance Movement was designed to avoid desegregation in Virginia.

Middle School Curriculum - United States History: 1877 to the Present

USII.1a 

Analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents.

USII.1b

Make connections between past and present.

USII.7d

Demonstrate knowledge of African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities and Civil Rights legislation

USII.8a

Examine the Civil Rights Movement.

High School Curriculum

VUS.1a

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art to increase understanding of events and life in the United States.

VUS.1c 

Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation.

VUS.14a

Identify the importance of Brown v. Board of Education decision (Supreme Court, Virginia case, Massive Resistance).

GOVT.1a

Analyze primary and secondary sources.

GOVT.8.d

Examine the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments.


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

In the United States, desegregation of public schools occurred after the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.  Many southern states resisted desegregation.  In Virginia, the Massive Resistance Movement arose in response to desegregation legislation.  The photograph of the Norfolk 17 depicts the African American students who attended Norfolk’s public schools in February 1959.  Prior to allowing the 17 students access to public schools, Norfolk closed its schools in the Fall of 1958 and did not reopen until February 1959.  This activity is designed to introduce students to the 17 African American students.  

STEPS:

  1. Introduce students to the Civil Rights Movement and efforts to integrate public schools.
  2. Access http://www.lib.odu.edu/specialcollections/schooldesegregation/ and explore the brief overview.
  3. Click on the picture of the Norfolk 17 and read about their journey.
  4. Explore each of the individuals by clicking on their pictures and reading about them.
  5. Write questions that arise as you look at the picture and explore each person’s information.

WEBSITE RESOURCES:


LESSON PLAN IDEAS

Focus Activity – 10 minutes:

Project the picture of the Norfolk 17.  Distribute viewing guide handout.  Ask students to jot down what they see as they look at the entire picture.  Introduce the Civil Rights Movement and integration as students discuss the picture.

Then cover the middle and right portions of the photo.  Direct students to write descriptive details from the visible left side.  Then cover the left and right portions.  Direct students to write descriptive details from the visible middle segment.  Then cover the left  and middle portions.  Direct students to write descriptive details from the visible right segment.



DISCUSSION – 10 minutes:

Ask students to share their descriptions from each viewing segment. 
Create a list of descriptions on the board.
Ask students to brainstorm to generate a list of questions about the photograph. 
Discuss the questions and possible answers.

PARTNER WORK – 10 minutes:

Students work with a partner to explore the electronic picture.  Demonstrate how to click on one person to locate personal details.  Each pair of students should record their reactions to the information and the basic details.

GROUP WORK – 10 minutes:

Partners join with others to form groups of four or six to share their discoveries.  As a group, students identify the most important item to share with the whole class.  Each group will present the item to the class and explain why the item was chosen.

WHOLE CLASS – 20 minutes:

Each group presents findings.  Whole class discussion about the activity and the lives of the Norfolk 17 during Massive Resistance.

CLOSURE – 10 minutes:

Students complete an exit ticket about the activity.  The exit ticket addresses questions that may arise and the content of the lesson.  End with a preview of the next lesson that explores the experiences of each individual.  Collect the exit tickets and use their questions as a foundation for future lessons and discussions.


VIEWING GUIDE HANDOUT FOR THE PHOTOGRAPH OF THE NORFOLK 17

FIRST STEP – Study the photograph of the Norfolk 17.  Jot down details about what you see (people, clothing, objects, surroundings, etc.)

What do you see?

People and Facial Expressions

Clothing

Objects

Surroundings

Other Items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECOND STEP – Based on what you noticed in the photograph, what conclusions can you
                              make?  Write your ideas in the box.

 

 

 

 

THIRD STEP -  As you view selected portions of the photo, write descriptive details and your
                           reactions and thoughts about the picture.

LEFT SIDE

MIDDLE PORTION

RIGHT SIDE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOURTH STEP – As you work with a partner and then a larger group, record your findings
                              on the back.  Prepare to share with the class.

 

Plaque: EXIT TICKET    1.  What details did you discover about Civil Rights and integration from        today’s lesson?              2.  What questions arose in your mind as you viewed the photograph?                  3.  How did the Norfolk 17 shape your schooling?                4.  What else would you like to know about the Norfolk 17?         Where might you find the information?         

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