School Desegregation in Norfolk,  Virginia

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About the Project


Overview of Themes
in the Desegregation Collection

--SOL Connection
--Historical Background
--Classroom
--Perspectives
--Sources
--Themes
--Topics

TITLE:     DESEGREGATION & MASSIVE RESISTANCE, NORFOLK, VA

TOPIC:      Integration and Massive Resistance – key perspectives, sources, themes, and classroom strategies

OBJECTIVES:

  • Identify possible perspectives associated with desegregation and massive resistance in Norfolk, Virginia
  • Identify types of sources to explore for lessons about desegregation and massive resistance

SOL CONNECTION:

Elementary School Curriculum Frameworks Across Grade Levels

1.10

Good citizens show a variety of positive traits.

1.12

Communities in Virginia include people with different ethnic origins, customs, and traditions.

2.12

The United States is a land of people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions

VS9b

Massive Resistance Movement was designed to avoid desegregation in Virginia.

Middle School Curriculum - United States History: 1877 to the Present

USII.1a 

Analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents.

USII.1b

Make connections between past and present.

USII.7d

Demonstrate knowledge of African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities and Civil Rights legislation

USII.8a

Examine the Civil Rights Movement.

 High School Curriculum

VUS.1a

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art to increase understanding of events and life in the United States.

VUS.1c 

Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation.

VUS.14a

Identify the importance of Brown v. Board of Education decision (Supreme Court, Virginia case, Massive Resistance).

GOVT.1a

Analyze primary and secondary sources.

GOVT.8.d

Examine the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments.


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

In the United States, desegregation of public schools occurred after the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.  Many southern states resisted desegregation.  In Virginia, the Massive Resistance Movement arose in response to desegregation legislation.  Norfolk closed its schools in the Fall of 1958 and did not reopen until February 1959.  This document was designed to provide an overview for a teacher.  The overview of the Special Collection on Desegregation and Massive Resistance in Norfolk provides possible perspectives, sources, themes, topics to analyze, and classroom strategies.

STEPS:

1.  Access http://www.lib.odu.edu/specialcollections/schooldesegregation/ and explore the web
     material by clicking on the tabs.

2.  Use the suggestions in this document to guide you as you design lessons that allow
     students to explore the website and desegregation in Norfolk.


CLASSROOM SUGGESTIONS

As you explore the website, these ideas may help you to design creative lessons for your students.

  • Compare court cases

  • Create a story board to depict one person’s experience

  • Create a story board to represent different perspectives           

  • Design a web quest to explore the issues and events    

  • Connect broadcast to personal papers of Margaret White

  • Listen to and analyze oral histories of Vivian Carter-Mason, Ruth James, and Edith White (advanced)

  • Follow one political leader’s actions          

  • Explore sociological and psychological issues    

  • Explore economic issues

  • Station work (walk-about) to gather information from a variety of perspectives

WEBSITE RESOURCES

http://www.lib.odu.edu/   Click on the desegregation link in the upper right corner.

http://www.lib.odu.edu/specialcollections/schooldesegregation/   Access the picture and  individual information.


KEY PERSPECTIVES

Use this material to create activities that explore the material through the lens of women, the members of the Norfolk 17, educators, lawyers, politicians, business leaders, School Board members, community members, religious groups, and the military.

1.  Women

  • Women’s Council for Interracial Cooperation
  • Vivian Carter-Mason
  • Ruth James
  • Margaret White

2.  Norfolk 17

3.  Educators (teachers and professors)

4.  Community members

5.  Norfolk School Board

6.  Norfolk Committee on Public Schools

7.  First Baptist Church on Bute Street

8.  Politicians in Virginia

9.  Beyond Virginia

10. Business leaders

TYPES OF SOURCES

This collection contains a wide variety of sources that allow students to explore diverse material. 

1.  Oral histories

2.  Judicial/legal issues and Supreme Court cases

  • Plessy v Ferguson, 1896
  • Brown v Board of Education, 1954
  • Beckett v School Board of the City of Norfolk, 1957
  • Adkins v School Board of the City of Newport News, 1957
  • Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v J. Lindsay Almond, Jr., Governor of Virginia, et al., 1958
  • Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v W. Fred Duckworth, et al, 1959

3.  Newspaper articles

4.  Photographs

5.  Journals, diaries, personal papers

KEY THEMES

1.  Economic factors and effects

2.  Political ramifications

3.  Social and cultural actions and reactions

4.  Military influence

TOPICS TO ANALYZE

1.  Pictures only of the Norfolk 17

2.  Written documentaries about the Norfolk 17

3.  Synthesizing pictures and documentaries of the Norfolk 17

4.  Videos

5.  Education and career paths of the Norfolk 17

6.  Compare to the Little Rock 9

7.  Treatments and experiences at the different schools

SCHOOLS

MALES

FEMALES

TOTAL

Norview HS

2

5

7

Maury HS

1

0

1

Granby HS

0

1

1

Norview JHS

2

3

5

Northside JHS

0

1

1

Blair JHS

1

1

2

TOTAL

6

11

17

TOP


School Desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia :
a digital collection of the Old Dominion University Libraries
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