School Desegregation in Norfolk,  Virginia

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SOLs: CONNECTIONS BETWEEN
MASSIVE RESISTANCE AND
VA STANDARDS OF LEARNING

--Elementary School
--Middle School
--High School

(Word Document)

Elementary School Curriculum Frameworks

Across Grade Levels

K.1

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day: This is a day to remember an African American who worked so that all people would be treated fairly. It is observed in January.

1.10

Good citizens show a variety of positive traits.

1.12

Communities in Virginia include people with different ethnic origins, customs, and traditions.

2.11

Martin Luther King, Jr.: He was an African American minister who worked so that all people would be treated fairly. He led peaceful marches and gave speeches.

2.12

The United States is a land of people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions.

VS9b

After World War II, African Americans demanded equal treatment and the recognition of their rights as American citizens. As a result of the Civil Rights Movement, laws were passed that made racial discrimination illegal.

  • Terms to know: Desegregation; Abolishment of racial segregation; Integration; Full equality of all races in the use of public facilities
  • Desegregation and Massive Resistance in Virginia: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education) that “separate but equal” public schools were unconstitutional. All public schools, including those in Virginia, were ordered to integrate. Virginia’s government established a policy of Massive Resistance, which fought to “resist” the integration of public schools. Some schools were closed to avoid integration. The policy of Massive Resistance failed, and Virginia’s public schools were integrated. Harry F. Byrd, Sr. led a Massive Resistance Movement against the integration of public schools.

VS9c

Harry F. Byrd, Sr., as governor, was known for a “Pay As You Go” policy for road improvements, and he modernized Virginia state government.


Middle School Curriculum Frameworks

United States History:  1877 to the Present

USII.1a

Analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1877 to the present

USII.1b

Make connections between past and present

USII.1d

Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives

USII.1e

Evaluate and debate issues orally and in writing

USII.7d

Demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, and political transformation of the United States by describing the changing patterns of society, including expanded educational and economic opportunities for military veterans, women, and minorities

  • African Americans’ aspirations for equal opportunities
  • Civil Rights legislation

USII.8a

Examine the Civil Rights Movement and the changing role of women

  • Effects of separate educational facilities and resources for white and African American students
  • Effects of Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education
  • Passive resistance and organized protests
  • Formation of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Civics and Economics

CE.1a

Examine and interpret primary and secondary source documents

CE.7d

Describe how individuals and interest groups influence public policy

  • Expressing opinions
  • Joining interest groups
  • Identifying issues

High School Curriculum Frameworks

Virginia and United States History

VUS1.a

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art to increase understanding of events and life in the United States

VUS1.b

Evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources

VUS1.c

Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation

VUS.14a

Identify the importance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision

  • Supreme Court decision
  • Virginia case
  • Massive Resistance

VUS.14b

Describe the importance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Virginia and United States Government

GOVT.1a

Analyze primary and secondary source documents

GOVT.1d

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information

GOVT.1e

Evaluate information for accuracy

GOVT.8d 

Examine the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments

GOVT.8e

Evaluate the effectiveness of citizen efforts to influence decision of state and local government by examining historical or contemporary events

GOVT.9b

Describe how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy

GOVT.9c

Describe how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy

GOVT.11a

Examine the Bill of Rights

  • Civil liberties
  • First Amendment freedoms

GOVT.11e

Explain every citizen’s right to be treated equally under the law

  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Fourteenth Amendment

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School Desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia :
a digital collection of the Old Dominion University Libraries
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